模锻工艺或模锻方法与锻件外形密切相关。形状相似的锻件,其模锻工艺及所用的锻 模结构无庸置疑都是基本相同的。因此,为了便于拟定工艺规程,加速锻件及锻模的设计 工作,应将各种形状的模锻件分类。目前比较一致的分类法是按照锻件外形和模锻时毛坯 的轴线方向,把模锻件分成两大类,即圆饼类和长轴类锻件。
Die forging process or method is closely related to the shape of forging. There is no doubt that the forging process and die structure of similar shape forgings are basically the same. Therefore, in order to facilitate the formulation of process specification and speed up the design of forgings and forging dies, die forgings of various shapes should be classified. At present, the more consistent classification method is to divide the die forgings into two categories according to the shape of the forgings and the axis direction of the blank during die forging, i.e. round cake forgings and long shaft forgings.
第一类    圆饼类锻件
The first kind of round cake forgings
在分模面上锻件投影为圆形或长宽尺寸相差不大的锻件,都列入这一类。模锻时,毛 坯轴线方向与打击方向相同,金属沿高度、宽度和长度方向同时流动。终锻前通常利用镦 粗坪台或拍扁坪台进行制坯,以保证锻件成形质量。
Forgings with circular projection on parting surface or forgings with little difference in length and width are included in this category. During die forging, the axis direction of the blank is the same as the striking direction, and the metal flows along the height, width and length direction at the same time. Before final forging, upsetting or flattening platen is usually used to make billets to ensure the forming quality of forgings.
第二类    长轴类锻件
Long shaft forgings of the second kind
这类锻件的轴线较长,即锻件的长度与宽度或高度的尺寸比例较大。模锻时,毛坯轴 线方向与打击方向相垂直,金属主要沿高度和宽度方向流动,沿长度方向流动很小。为此, 当锻件沿长度方向其截面面积变化较大时,必须考虑采用有效的制坯工步,如拔长、滚挤、弯曲工步等,以保证锻件饱满成形。
The axis of this kind of forging is long, that is, the ratio of length to width or height is large. During die forging, the axis direction of the blank is perpendicular to the striking direction, and the metal mainly flows along the height and width direction, while the flow along the length direction is very small. Therefore, when the cross-sectional area of forgings changes greatly along the length direction, it is necessary to take effective blank making steps, such as drawing, rolling extrusion and bending, to ensure the full forming of forgings.
Although there are many kinds of long shaft forgings, they can be divided into four groups according to their shape, main axis and parting line.
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